The Faculty of Electronics was founded in 2003 after the division of the Faculty of Physics. Dean – Doctor of Phys.-Math. Sciences, Professor Igor Ivanovych Polovynko (since 2003).
Although the faculty has been functioning for only 15 years, in fact, university scientists began active research and education in the field of electronics, the creation of new devices, their active use for medical and environmental purposes, and electronic material science in the 1950s. The first studies began in the field of physical electronics and radio electronics. At the Department of Theoretical Foundations of Electro-Radio Engineering under the direction of prof. Maksymovych M.H. work began with the transfer and transformation of information based on the use of radio frequency electromagnetic waves and oscillations. The main emphasis was made on radio engineering. The works conducted in this are are now widely used in most areas of modern science and technology. So in 1956, B.M. Paliukh, developing the research begun by him while completing his thesis at the Leningrad Physical-Technical Institute, defended his Ph.D. thesis on “Resonance recharge of ions and atoms of mercury, krypton and xenon”. In 1959, Kushnir R.M. defended his Ph.D. thesis on the topic “Resonant charge of positive ions and potassium and cesium atoms”. The results obtained by these scientists found the response of many scientists and were used in theoretical works devoted to the development of modern ideas about atomic-ion collisions. Experiment conducted by Kushnir R.M. At that time, it was unique in its complexity. With the transition to the Department of General Physics, Savchyn L.S. and Stasiuk Z.V. The range of research in the field of physical electronics is expanding. Gradually improving the material base of scientific and educational laboratories. Among the main directions of research carried out at the department since 1962, it should be noted: the study of ion-atomic collisions and energy dependences of the probabilities of elastic scattering and resonance recharge, as well as the mobility of low-energy mercury ions, inert gases, alkali metals, magnesium, cadmium, adsorption studies -emission phenomena, study of physical properties of thin films. With the purpose of developing such research at the department, with the help of scientists of the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (Kyiv), techniques were developed for obtaining ultrahigh vacuum. In 1963, the training of students for the specialization “Physical Electronics” began.
After coming to the chair in 1967 of Ivankiv L.I. the investigation of adsorption phenomena on the surface of semiconductor materials began. The influence of sorption processes on the electrophysical properties of semiconductor films was studied, the effect of semiconductor parameters (width of the forbidden zone, material dispersion, gas pressure, temperature and light irradiation on the sorption and catalytic activity of the material) was studied, and theoretical models for the explanation of the experimental results were developed. To study the adsorption kinetics the processes of using the phenomenon of sorboluminescence, photon-electron emission and exo-electron emission are proposed. The structure and electrical properties of thin films were studied by the employees of the laboratory of thin films physics under the guidance of Stasiuk Z.V. under conditions of high vacuum. The size kinetic phenomena (classical dimensional effect) and the influence of the adsorption of different atoms and molecules on the output of the work and the kinetic coefficients of the films of a number of transitional metals were studied. In order to explain the results of the experiment, both models known from literature were used, as well as new theoretical models proposed by the staff of the department. The problem of controlling electronic properties of films by controlled application of adsorption coatings was studied.
Since 1970, with the arrival to the department of Stakhira I.M. began to study the physical properties of layered crystals. The main direction of research was to clarify the influence of the structure of the crystal on its physical properties. The chair has mastered the technique of growing crystals. They were studied as materials with varying degrees of lamination, but with identical components (e.g., In4Se3, InSe), and crystals with slight deviations in the crystalline structure, but with different composition (InSe, GaSe). The features of transfer phenomena in crystals (temperature dependence of current carriers, piezoelectric, etc.) and interaction of radiation with crystals (photoconductivity, optical absorption, radiation conductivity, etc.) are revealed. On the basis of the proposed theoretical models it was possible to find out the features of the band structure, which were due to the layered structure of the crystals, as well as to clarify a number of features of the phonon spectrum.
Research results are beginning to be introduced into production. Cooperation with SCTB of the Lviv factory of kinescope (the research institute of electron-beam devices “Erotron”) is the most wide-ranging on the subject and scope of work. In particular, a considerable number of research works of the applied plan and works devoted to the development of methods for the use of experimental methods of physical electronics in other fields have been carried out at the department. Among them are the development of a unique method of mass-mectrometer studies of the composition of liquid and gas inclusions in pegmatites quartz, a measuring mass spectrometric system based on an omega-ray sensor РМО-4С, which allows to carry out a quantitative analysis of gas composition in vacuum devices with a working range of the analyzed mass numbers 2 – 84, the first mass-spectrometric studies of temperature and radiation destruction of materials, in particular, alkaline-halide crystals with radiolysis. The results of mass spectrometric studies of gas evolution and thermal decomposition of polydifenilsiloxanes were later used in the Kyiv Research Institute of Electromechanical Instruments to create the first electron beam tube in the USSR with thermoplastic recording of information.
In 1975, for a complex of research works on surface physics (the search for materials with low output work for the engines of spacecrafts and coatings that ensure the transparency of windows of aircraft in their long-term exploitation in the mode of radiation by cosmic radiation, the head of the work docent Palukh.B.M. was awarded with a commemorative medal and a certificate of the control centre for the flight of the joint Soviet-American ship “Soiuz-Apollo” as a participant in the preparation and management of flight.
Starting at the end of the 80’s on the initiative of prof. Lyskovych O.B. at the department, preparation for the formation of a new specialization – “Physics of medical and biological systems” – was started. The aim was to use physical methods and concepts for diagnosing and treating human cases, improving medical instruments, applying engineering principles to biology and medicine, and conducting an assessment of risk control during the action of various radiations on the human body. In 1993, this specialization was opened at the department. Later on the basis of existing specializations the specialty “Physical and biomedical electronics” was opened in the direction of “Electronics”. In the Department of Nonlinear Optics, together with the Department of Experimental Physics, in 1998 the training of opticians from a new specialization “Optical-Physical Methods and Engineering in Biology and Medicine” began.
Significant progress was made by scientists at the faculty and in the field of radio electronics. So, at the department of theoretical foundations of electro-radio engineering (now the chair of radio physics) already in the 60’s under the leadership of Synytskyi L. A. the workers of the department begin to carry out research work on machine design of electronic circuits. Mochulskyi Yu.S. At that time he began to master the simulation of processes in physical systems on analogue computers. As a result, a number of laboratory works were done on the modelling of automatic control systems. in parallel, work on the qualitative theory of electric circuits and the development of programs for modelling these circles on electronic computers are underway. in the early 70’s after graduating from the post-graduate school Lenovenko A.M. begins to develop precision thermometers based on nuclear quadruple resonance. On the brink of the 60’s and 70’s under the leadership of Vladimirov V.L. Work was carried out on the study of ferro-resonance circuits and the development of low-frequency filters on their basis.
In the 90’s, the department began work on physical and biomedical electronics and simulation of processes in biological objects. Under the leadership of Stakhiv P.H. several samples of a microprocessor tonometer on domestic chips were developed and manufactured. Unfortunately, these developments could not be introduced into production. Under the guidance of Blahitko B.Ya.a computer-assisted device for measuring pulse parameters and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is developed on the basis of these parameters.
The deployment of research work at the Department of Experimental Physics in 1967 on optoelectronics led in 1979 to the discovery of the phenomenon of electrography in crystals, the authors of which were Zholudiev I.S. and Vlokh O.H. At that time it was the first opening in the territory of Western Ukraine.
Employees of SKTB “Mahnon” in the 80’s of the last century began work on the creation of optoelectronic and electronic devices. So in December 1983 a portable device PPK-1 was created for the determination of carboxyl-haemoglobin in the blood. Later, an automatic portable analyzer PPK-2 was created, designed for rapid diagnosis of carbon monoxide intoxication in marine and hospital conditions. He was accepted to provide the Navy. Since 1988, work has begun on the development of an automated system for monitoring fluid process environments in the manufacture of electronic equipment. The design documentation for the SCO-1 instruments was developed to determine the concentration of water-stored micro particles and PSM-1 for operational control of contamination in the lines of supply of high-purity deionised water with a threshold of 0.2 micron particle registration, and a model of the PLG-01 device designed to determine the haemoglobin content and its five ligand forms in whole blood.
In the 1990s, the staff of the Institute of Applied Physics began to develop high-precision and high-stability radio electron metering devices, systems of regulation and stabilization using physical phenomena at the molecular level. At the core of the development were the processes of measuring temperature and pressure and the use of these parameters to regulate and stabilize the operating modes of electronic high-precision systems. These physical parameters are basic for ensuring operating modes of on-board systems of all aircraft as well as ground navigation equipment (optical systems of laser and thermal imaging equipment, correction of aerial parameters of ground and space based, etc.). By order of CB “Southern” developed and implemented onboard systems of stabilization of inertial platform (gyroscope) with the term of unregulated operation of more than 16 years for strategic missile-space complexes and aircraft engineering. The system of temperature regulation for heavy spacecrafts like “Ocean” launched by the Zenit launch vehicle was developed and implemented. High-precision nuclear-quadruple absolute temperature measurers have been developed for the propulsion of liquid oxygen and hydrogen for rocket engines as well as for aviation hydrogen jet engines.
At this time, when the global problems of mankind, which directly affect all countries and peoples, intensify, scientists cannot stand aside. This is first and foremost the problems of the environment, the fight against diseases, and the provision of humanity with food, energy, etc. So immediately after the Chornobyl catastrophe research began in the area of radioecology at the Department of Nonlinear Optics. Already in May 1986, the first studies of the environmental state of radioecology, in particular the territory of the Shatsk National Reserve, are being conducted. Selected for analysis of vegetation samples, especially pine needles from the park area showed significant pollution with their radionuclides of Chernobyl origin. In 1986-1989 analyzes of selected samples were conducted in cooperation with scientists from Uzhhorod and Moscow universities. More fundamental radio ecological studies have been conducted since 1990, when gamma spectrometric equipment was purchased and a laboratory of gamma spectrometry was created.
However, the most successful scientists of the faculty of electronics have reached the materials for electronics. So in the early 60’s under the leadership of Pashkovskyi M.V. the study of the physical properties of oxide systems began. There was a need to grow such monocrystals and to study the influence of doping and defects on optically-luminescent properties. Since 1964, on the chair of semiconductor physics, tungsten zinc and cadmium, grenades doped with chromium and rare earth metals are grown and investigated. Since 1966, under the guidance of V.H. Savytskyi the processes of gas-phase crystallization of mercury chalcogenides, electrophysical and photoelectric properties of polycrystalline and epitaxial layers on their basis are studied. The research of narrow-band semiconductor compounds of type A2B6, in particular solid solutions of different types of CRTs, film systems based on them, variozon structures, is being expanded. For a series of works on this subject and the development of new materials for electronic technology professor Pashkovskyi M.V. and Savytsky V.H. in the composition of the author’s team in 1984, were awarded the State Prize in the field of science and technology.
Now the faculty unites the departments of electronics, nonlinear optics, radio electronics material science, radio physics, physics of semiconductors, physical and biomedical electronics. The faculty trains specialists in the following areas of training: computer science, micro and nano-electronics and applied physics in specialties: specialties: radio-physics and electronics, applied physics, physical and biomedical electronics, information technology design. The following basic educational and research laboratories operate at the faculty: solid-state electronics, quantum electronics, optoelectronics, nuclear practice and dosimetry, radio electronics, microprocessor technology, computer information technologies, biomedical electronics, computational, gamma spectroscopy, sensors, optoelectronic materials, radio-electronic devices
The teaching process is provided by almost fifty instructors, including 12 professors and 34 associate professors. Among them are three laureates of the State Prizes of Ukraine, five honoured university professors. Leading specialists of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, other scientific and production institutions take direct part in the educational process. The students of the faculty receive basic training in general and theoretical physics, higher mathematics, computing engineering and programming, radio electronics, foreign languages, economics and humanitarian disciplines.
Coursework and diploma work of the students of the faculty cover various fields of modern electronics, which have fundamental and applied importance, in particular, such new ones as computer simulation of physical processes, computer networks and systems, physics of medical and biological systems, semiconductor electronics materials, high-temperature superconductivity, laser measuring systems, optical communication, scientific and technical expertise and radioecology.
Student scientific conferences, contests of scientific works are held every year. The best students are nominated scholarships. Postgraduate and doctoral studies work at the faculty. Students of the Faculty of Electronics are often the best in sporting competitions, contests of fun and smart, organization of evening entertainment.
Graduates of the Faculty of Electronics work: in educational institutions of different levels of accreditation (universities, institutes, colleges, lyceums, schools) – teachers of physics, electronics, computer science; in research organizations (institutes, laboratories, design bureaus) – research staff, program engineers, medical equipment engineers, and small and medium business enterprises – managers; in organizations of ecological monitoring – by experts; at industrial enterprises (factories, firms) – an engineer; in banking, insurance and tax institutions – specialists in computer technology and software.
Scientists and faculty of the faculty maintain close contacts with many universities and scientific institutes both in our country and abroad. These are the Vienna, Wroclaw, Lyons, Gdansk and other well-known universities. Our scholars are often invited to various international conferences. Some of them, devoted to the problems of modern electronics, are held in Lviv. Thus, students, postgraduates and young scientists have the opportunity to communicate with prominent electronics scientists, undergo internships or study in prestigious educational institutions in Europe.
Comprehensive training in fundamental, humanitarian and economic disciplines, combined with knowledge of foreign languages, offers graduates considerable employment benefits. Wide international cooperation enables them to continue their education and work abroad.